The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi
[ Encyclopedia of Gandhi's Thoughts ]

The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi

(Encyclopedia of Gandhi's Thoughts)

Compiled & Edited by :
R. K. Prabhu & U. R. Rao

Table of Contents

An Introduction
  2. TRUTH
  4. FAITH

About This Book

Compiled & Edited by : R. K. Prabhu & U. R. Rao
With Forewords by: Acharya Vinoba Bhave & Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
I.S.B.N :81-7229-149-3
Published by : Jitendra T. Desai,
Navajivan Mudranalaya,
Ahmedabad - 380 014,
© Navajivan Trust, 1960



Year Month DateEvent
1869 Oct 2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand ALIAS Kaba Gandhi, prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai.
1876     Goes to Rajkot with parents; attend primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.
1881     Enters high school at Rajkot.
1883     Marries Kasturbai.
1884 - 85     Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.
1887     Passes matriculations examinations; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.
1888 Sept 4 Sails for England
  Oct 28 Reaches London Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman's equipment
1889     Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed.
1890     Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.
  June   passes London Matric
  Sept   joins Vegetarian Society.
1891 June 10 Called to the Bar
    12 Sails for India.
  July   Reaches Bombay.
  Nov   Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.
1892     struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftsman.
1893 April   leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work
  May-June   Experience colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.
1894 Aug 22 Founds Natal Indian Congress
  Sept   Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled. Studies religious literature including the Bible, the Koran and Tolstoy's The kingdom of god is within you.
1895     Gets more committed to south African Indian cause. issues The Indian Franchise : An appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.
1896 July   Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of south African Indians.
  Aug 14 Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot, Tours Bombay, madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of south African Indians
  Nov 30 Sails for South Africa with wife and children.
1897 Jan 13 20 Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.
    20 Declines to prosecute assailants.
  April 6 Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, secretary of State for colonies, regarding landing incidents, background.
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial Authorities, as well as ofcommunicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.
1898-99     Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indian’s trading rights.
1899     Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.
1990     Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem, for Congress session
1901 Oct 18 Sails for India
Dec   14 Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.
    27 Moves resolution on South Africa at congress
1902 Jan, 28 Feb   Visits Rangoon Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settles down to Practice.
  July 1 Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay
  Nov   Is called to south Africa to champion Indian's cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.
  Dec   Arrives in Durban : leadsdelegation to chamberlain
1903     Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji
  June   Indian opinion commences publication
1904     Reads Ruskin's Unto This Last: founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.
1905     Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale, Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statement to treat India, 'an integral part of the Empire', with consideration.
Leads deputation to Lord Selborne, British High Commissioner, concerning Transvaal Indian problem.
1906 May 12 Support ‘home rule’ for India ‘ in the name of justice and for good of humanity’
    27 Writes to brother, Lakshmidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.
  June-July   Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of Brahmacharya for life.
  Sept 11 Addresses mass meeting of Indian sat Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.
  Oct,21 Nov 30 18 In England on deputation to present Indian’s case to Colonial Secretary
  Dec.   Returns to South Africa.
1907 Jan- Feb.   Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book
  March   Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protect meetings.
  April   Sees smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meeting. Pledge, in Indian Opinion, opposition to' Black Act'.
  May   'Black Act' receives royal assent
  July   Address mass meeting opposing 'Black Act'
  Aug   Writes to Smuts criticising Registration Act, suggesting amendments.
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.
  Dec   Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji
1908 Jan 8 Asks Government for suspension of Registration act, offers voluntary registration.
    10 Adopt word;' Satyagraha' in place of 'Passive Resistance'.
Sentenced to 2 months imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.
    21 Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if registration Act is repealed.
    30 Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.
  Feb 10 Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger -prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interests; refuses to prosecute his assailants.
  March-June   Negotiates with Smuts forfulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies;
  July   Corresponding with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impression and burn registration certificates
  Aug   Declares use of violence 'harmful, even useless to uproot British rule' in India
Appeals to Smuts to repeal 'Black Act'. Registration certificates burnt at meetings, passive resistance resumed
  Sept   Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement
  Oct 15 Arrested and sentenced sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment
  Dec 12 Released from VolksrustJail.
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.
1909 Jan 16 Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.
    20 Writes to press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle
  Feb 25 Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months
  May 2 Transferred toPretoria Central Jail
    24 released.
  June 21 Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.
  July 10 Arrives in London.
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.
  Oct 1 Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.
  Nov 9 The times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.
    10 Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.
    13 Leaves England for South Africa Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle"
    30 Reaches South Africa
  Dec 29 Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indian's struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.
1910 April 4 Sends Tolstoy copy of Indians Home Rule, seeks comments
  May 8 Tolstoy replies; question of passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.
    30 Founds Tolstoy Farm
  Dec 4 Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy
1911 Jan   Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants' Restrictions Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws
  March 27 Interviews smuts atCape town
  April 22 Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement
  May 3 Meets Smuts: 'ProvisionalSettlement" arrived on Smuts' promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrations' Restriction Acts'
  June 24 Pledges loyalty to King-emperor on coronation
  Dec 8 Invites Gokhale to South Africa
1912 March 16 Commends Gokhale's attempts for abolition of indenture system
  Sept 12 Phoenix Trust is set up
  Oct 22 Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.
1913 Jan 18 Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.
  March 14 Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle's Supreme Court judgement.
    30 Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle Judgement.
  April 12 In Indian opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill's failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911.Kasturba decides to join passive Resistance struggle.
  May 19 Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.
  June 7 Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of satyagraha
    27 Express readiness for negotiations
  Sept 13 Announces negotiation "proved abortive
    15 Passive Resistance is revived
    16 Kasturba is arrested
  Oct 17 Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of £3 tax. 3000 minor strike
    24 proposes 'March' into Transvaal
    28 March' formNewcastle begins
    30 Reaches Charlestown
  Nov 3 Announces 'March" into Transvaal to court arrest
    5 Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of £ 3 tax
    6 Leads ' Great March'
Arrested at Palmford
    7 At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers
    8 Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; 'March' continues
    9 Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour
    10 Takes 'one meal a day' pledge till repeal of tax
    11 Sentenced, at Dundee, to 9 months' rigorous imprisonment
    13 Removed to Volksrust gaol
    14 Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust
  Dec 18 Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer's dress.
1914 Jan 13,16 Interviews Smuts, submits proposals
    22 Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen day's penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm
  June   Indian Relief Act is passed
  July 18 Sails for England, EN ROUTE to India
  Aug 4 Reaches London.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps
  Oct   volunteer corps on duty
  Dec 19 Sails for India
1915 Jan 9 Reaches India.
Awarded Kaiser-I-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services
  May 20 Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram, after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad
1915-16   Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways
1917     Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce hand-made cloth on large scale takes root in his mind
  April   Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up t o inquire into ryots' grievances.
1918 Jan-March   Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secures suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops
  April 27 Attends Viceroy's War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army
1919 Feb 28 Signs Satyagraha pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.
  April 6 inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement ; countrywide HARTAL
    8-11 Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to co, ply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.
    13 Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three day's penitential fast
    14 Confesses at Nadiad his 'Himalayan miscalculation' regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.
    18 Suspends satyagraha.
  Sept   Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also
  Oct   Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India; joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab
  Nov 24 presides over all-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi
  Dec   Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.
1920 Jan   Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslim) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.
  Aug 1 Address letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal
  Sept   Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs
  Nov   Founds Gujarat Vidyapeeth at Ahmedabad
  Dec   Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peacefully means
1921 April   Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement
  Aug   Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and light s monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay
  Dec   Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad
1922 Feb 1 Gives notice to Viceroy of Intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).
    5 Following Chauri Chaura (UP) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement
  March 10 Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (march 18) to six years imprisonment.
1924 Jan-Feb   Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (jan.12) and released on Feb.5.
  April   Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.
  Sept 18 Begins 21 day's fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.
  Dec   Provides over Congress session at Belgaum.
1925 Sept   Founds All-India Spinner's Association
  Nov   Seven days vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography,'The story of my Experiments with Truth'.
1927 Nov   Visits Ceylon
1928 Dec   Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status in not granted by end of 1929.
1929 Dec   At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).
1930 Feb   Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Dictator to launch Civil Disobedience movement.
  March 2 Addresses letter to Victory intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded
    12 Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).
  May 5 Arrested and imprisoned without trial; HARTAL all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year
1931 Jan 26 Unconditionally released from prison
  Feb-march   Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact
  Aug 29 sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.
  Sept-Dec   Attends session of Conference
  Dec 5 Leaves England for India
    28 lands in Bombay
1932 Jan 4 Arrested and imprisoned without trial
  Sept 20 commences ' fast unto death' in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in communal Award
    26 Breaks fast on Government of India's acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans
1933 Feb, 11 Founds the weekly paper Harijan, published in English and Hindi
  May 8 Commences at noon 21 days fast for self purification; released unconditionally at 9 p.m.
    9 Announces suspension of Civil Disobedience movement for six weeks and calls on the Government to withdraw its Ordinances
    29 Breaks fast.
  July 26 Disbands Satyagraha Ashram
    30 Informs Government of Bombay of his decision to March from Ahmedabad to Ras with 33 followers to revive Civil Disobedience Movement
    31 Arrested and imprisoned without trial
  Aug 4 Released and rearrested for breaking a restraint order
    16 Goes on fast on being denied facilities to carry on anti-untouchability propaganda
    23 Released unconditionally
  Nov 7 commences Harijan-uplift tour
1934 Sept 17 Announces decision to retire from politics from October 1 to engage himself in development of village industries, Harijan service and education through basic crafts
  Oct 26 Inaugurates All-India Village Industries Association.
1936 April 30 Settles down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces, making it his headquarters
1937 Oct 22 Presides over Educational Conferences at Wardha and outlines his scheme of education through basis crafts
1939 March 3 Commences 'fast unto death' at Rajkot to secure Ruler's adherence to promise given to reform administration, and ends it on March 7 on Viceroy's intervention
1940 July&Sept   Meets viceroy by invitation in connection with war situation
  Oct   Sanctions individual civil disobedience; suspends Harijan and allied weeklies following official demand for pre-censorship of reports and writing in Harijan on the subject of Satyagraha.
1941 Dec 30 At his own request is relieved of his leadership of Congress by Working Committee.
1942 Jan 18 Restarts Harijan and allied weeklies
  March 27 Meets Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi; later declares Cripps proposals to be a 'post-dated cheque'.
  May   Appeals to British Government to quit India
  Aug 8 Addresses A.I.C.C. session in Bombay on implication of Quit India resolution.
    9 Arrested and interned in Agakhan's palace at Poona
    15 Death of Mahadev Desai, Gandhiji's personal secretary, from heart failure, in Aga Khan's palace
  Aug-Dec   Corresponds with Viceroy and Government of India regarding disturbances
1943 Feb 10 Commences 21 days fast, which he breaks on march 3
1944 Feb 22 Kasturba Gandhi dies in Aga Khan palace
  May 6 Released unconditionally
  Sept 9-27 Carries on talks with M.A. Jinnah regarding Pakistan
  Oct 2 Presentation of purse of 110lakhs of rupees (£ 8,25,000) for Kasturba Memorial on occasion of 75thbirthday
1945 April 17 In a statement regarding the ensuing San Francisco Conference says that peace is impossible without equality and freedom of India. Also demands a just peace for Germany and Japan.
  Dec 19 Lays foundation stone of C.F. Andrews' Memorial Hospital at Santiniketan.
1945-46 Dec-Jan   Tour Bengal and Assam
1946 Jan& Feb   tours Southern India for anti-untouchability and Hindustani Propaganda.
  Feb 10 Revives Harijan and allied group of weekly journals.
  April   Participates in political talks with Cabinet Mission in Delhi
  May 5-12 In Simla; Simla Conference in session; deliberations prove infructuous
    16 Cabinet mission announces Plan
    18-19 Discusses Plan with Cabinet mission
    26 Considers Plan best document produced by British Government under circumstances.
  June 6 In Mussoorie
    7 Returns to Delhi.
    10 Refuses to enthuse over Allied Victory as not being 'Victory of truth over falsehood'.
    11 Viceroy interviews Gandhiji, moots proposal of coalition Government at Centre
    16 Cabinet Mission negotiations discontinued; Viceroy proposes Interim Government.
    18 Congress Working Committee decides to accept interim Government scheme.
    20-1 Attends Working Committee meeting. Gandhiji is seen by Cripps
    23 Advices Congress not to enter Interim Government, but only Constituent Assembly
    24 Meets Cabinet Mission
    28 Leaves Delhi forPoona; attempts made to derail train EN ROUTE
  July 7 Address A.I.C.C. meeting at Bombay; Congress accepts Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16.
    31 Jinnah threatens sanctions of 'Direct Action'
  Aug 12 Viceroy announces invitation to Congress to form Provisional Government.
  Aug 16-18 The 'Great Calcutta Killing'
    24 Viceroy Wavell broadcasts Plan
    27 Gandhiji cables warning to British Government against repetition of 'Bengal tragedy'; also writes to Wavell
  Sept 4 Interim Government formed
    26 Has interview with Wavell
  Oct 9 Jinnah's 9-point demands conveyed to Congress
    10 Noakhali Massacre
    15 Muslim League agrees to enter Interim Government
    28 Leaves for Calcutta. Riots breaks out in Bihar
  Nov 6 Leaves for Noakhali; issues statement on 'Partial Fast'. Noakhali tour begins.
    20 Starts tour without party
  Dec 20 Completes month-long sojourn at Srirampur
    25 At Noakhali, says :"I am being tested through and through".
    30 Jawaharlal Nehru calls on Gandhiji, who says: "my reason wholly supports my heart
1947 Jan 2 Says: "all around me is utter darkness".
Leaves Srirampur on walking tour
    3-29 In Bihar, touring riot-affected areas
    30 Leaves Patna for Delhi
  April 1-2 Gandhiji addresses Asian Relation Conference in Delhi
    15 Issues with Jinnah joint appeal for communal peace
    29 In Bihar
  May 1 Congress Working Committee accepts Partition in principle.
    5 In interview, Gandhiji denies that communal division of India is inevitable
    24 Leaves Bihar for Delhi
    31 Declares peace must precede Partition, he would not be party to India's vivisection.
  June 2 Viceroy's Partition plan revealed; Congress Working Committee conveys acceptance.
    3 Indian leader broadcast on Mountbatten Plan
    6 Gandhiji writes to Mountbatten, with Pakistan conceded to persuade Jinnah to amicable settle all outstanding points with Congress
    12 Addresses Congress Working Committee
  July   'Independence of India Bill passed'
    27 Appeals to Princes to regard people's paramountcy as a privilege
  August 14 Hails following day as one of rejoicing for deliverance from British bondage; but deplores partition. Pakistan is born
  Aug 15 Hindu-Muslim fraternization in Calcutta
    16 Hails 'Miracle of Calcutta'
  Sept 1 Considers Calcutta peace nine-days wonder, decides on fast
    2 Is mobbed in Calcutta house ;gives up idea of Noakhali visit. Peace efforts intensified
    4 Breaks fast
    7 Leaves Calcutta for Delhi; commences daily visits to riot-raced areas.
    24 Pakistan raiders invade Kashmir.
    25 Kashmir accedes to Indian Union
    26 Criticises Churchill's holocaust in India' statement
  Nov 1 Indian troops enter Junagadh
    3 Junagadh accedes to India.
Address A.I.C.C
    11 Defends Junagadh's accession to India
  Dec 25 Pleads for amicable settlement between India and Pakistan
    30 India refers Kashmir dispute to U.N.
1948   12 Decides to fast for communal peace in Delhi; Mountbatten fails to dissuade Gandhiji.
    15 Enters 'danger zone'. Hails Indian Cabinet's decision to release Pakistan dues of Rs. 550 million. Fast continues for establishment of communal peace.
    17 Doctors warn fast must be ended. Central Peace Committee formed, decides on 'Peace Pledge'
    18 Peace Committee signs, presents 'Peace Pledge' to Gandhiji, who breaks fast.
    20 Bomb explodes at prayer meeting
    27 Visits Mehrauli Muslim Fair
    29 Angry refugees ask Gandhiji to retire to the Himalayas
    30 Drafts constitution of a Congress transformed into Lok Sevak Sangh. Is assassinated on way to evening prayer.