Towards New Education

Moral Basis of Vegetarianism


Written by :M. K. Gandhi

Table of Contents

  1. Food Values
  2. Unfired Food
  3. Vital Need for Research
  4. Vegetarianism
  5. Not An End in Itself
  6. The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism
  7. Our Daily Diet
  8. Minimum Diet

About This Book

Written by : M. K. Gandhi
First Edition :10,000 copies, 1959
I.S.B.N :81-7229-122-1
Printed and Published by : Jitendra T. Desai
Navajivan Mudranalaya,
Ahmedabad - 380 014,
© Navajivan Trust, 1959


Chapter-1: Food Values

Whilst it is true that man cannot live without air and water, the thing that nourishes the body is food. Hence the saying, food is life.
Food can be divided into three categories: vegetarian, flesh, and mixed. Flesh foods include fowl and fish. Milk is an animal product and cannot by any means be is an animal product and cannot by any means be included in a strictly vegetarian diet. It serves the purpose of meat to a very large extent. In medical language it is classified as animal food. A layman does not consider milk to be animal food. On the other hand, eggs are regarded by the layman as a flesh food. In reality, they are not. Nowadays sterile eggs are also produced. The hen is not allowed to see the cock and yet it lays eggs. A sterile egg never develops into a chick. Therefore, he who can take milk should have no objection to taking sterile eggs.
Medical opinion is mostly in favour of a mixed diet, although there is a growing school, which is strongly of the opinion that anatomical and physiological evidence is in favour of man being a vegetarian. His teeth, his stomach, intestines, etc. seem to prove that nature has meant man to be a vegetarian.
Vegetarian diet, besides grains, pulses, edible roots, tubers and leaves, included fruits, both fresh and dry. Dry fruit includes nuts like almonds, pistachio, walnuts, etc.
I have always been in favour of pure vegetarian diet. But experience has taught me that in order to keep perfectly fit, vegetarian diet must include milk and milk products such as curds, butter, ghee etc. This is a significant departure from my original idea. I excluded milk from my diet for six years. At that time, I felt none the worse for the denial. But in the year 1917, As a result of my own ignorance, I was laid down with severe dysentery. I was reduced to a skeleton, but I stubbornly refused to take milk or buttermilk. But I could not build up my body and pick up sufficient strength to leave the bed. I had taken the vow of not taking milk. A medical friend suggested that at the time of taking vow. I could have had in mind only the milk of the cow and buffalo; why should the vow prevent me from taking goat’s milk? My wife supported him and I yielded. Really speaking, for one who has given up milk, though at the time of taking the vow only the cow and the buffalo were in mind, milk should be taboo. All animal milks have practically the same composition, though the proportion of the components varies in cash case. So I may be said to have kept merely the letter, not the spirit, of the vow. Be that as it may, goat’s milk produced immediately and I drank it. It seemed to bring me new life. I picked up rapidly and was soon able to leave the bed. On account of this several similar experiences, I have been forced to admit the necessity of adding milk to the strict vegetarian diet. But I am convinced that in the vast vegetable kingdom there must be some kind, which, while supplying those necessary substances which we derive from milk and meat, is free from their drawbacks, ethical and other.
In my opinion there are definite drawbacks in taking milk or meat. In order to get meat we have to kill. And we are certainly not entitled to any other milk except the mother’s milk in our infancy. Over and above the moral drawback, there are others, purely from the point of view of health. Both milk and meat bring with them the defects of the animal from which they are derived. Domesticated cattle are hardly ever perfectly healthy. Just like man, cattle suffer from innumerable diseases. Several of these are overlooked even when the cattle are subjected to periodical medical examinations. Besides, medical examination of all the cattle in India seems to be an impossible feat, at any rate for the present. What applies to the milch cattle applies to a much greater extent to the animals slaughtered for meat. As a general rule, man just depends upon luck to escape from such risks. He does not seem to worry much about his health. He considers himself to be a quite safe in his medical fortress in the shape of doctors, vaids and hakims. His main worry and concern is how to get wealth and position in society. This worry overshadows all the rest. Therefore, so long as some selfless scientist does not, as a result of patient research work, discover a vegetable substitute for milk and meat, man will go on taking meant and milk.
Now let us consider mixed diet. Man requires food which can supply tissue building substances to provide for the growth and daily wear and tear of the body. It should also contain something which can supply energy, fat, certain slats and roughage to help the excretion of waste matter. Tissue building substances are known as proteins. They are obtained from milk, meat, eggs, pulses and nuts. The proteins contained in milk and meat, in other words, the animal proteins being more easily digestible and assailable, are much more evaluable than vegetable proteins. Milk is superior to meat. The medicos tell us that in case where meat cannot be digested, milk is digested quite easily. For vegetarian’s milk, being the only source of animal proteins is a very important article of diet. The proteins, in raw eggs are considered to be the most easily digestible of all proteins.
But everybody cannot afford to drink milk. And milk is not available in every place. I would like to mention here a very important fact with regard to milk. Contrary to the popular belief, skimmed milk is a very valuable article to diet. There are times when it proves even more useful than whole milk. The chief function of milk is to supply animal proteins for tissue building and tissue repair. Skimming, instruments cannot removes the fats, does not affect the proteins at all. Moreover , the available skimming instruments cannot remove all the fat from milk. Neither is there any likelihood of such an instrument being constructed.
The body requires other things besides milk, whole or skimmed. I give the second place to cereals wheat, rice, jawar, bajri, etc. These are used as the staple diet. Different cereals are used as staple in different provinces of India. In many places, more than one kind of cereals are eaten at the same time, for instance, small quantities of wheat, bajri and rice are often served together. This mixture is not necessary for the nourishment of the body. It makes it difficult to regulate the quantity of food intake, and puts an extra strain upon digestion. As all these varieties supply starch mainly, it is better to take one only, at a time. Wheat may well be described as the king among the cereals. If we glance at the world map, we find that wheat occupies the first place. From the point of view of health, if we can get wheat, rice and other cereals become unnecessary. If wheat is not available and jawar,etc. cannot be taken on account of dislike or difficulty in digesting them, rice has to be resorted to.
The cereals should be properly cleansed, ground on a grinding stone, and the resulting flour used as it is. Sieving of the flour should be avoided. It is likely to remove the bhushi or the pericarp which is a rich source of salts and vitamins, both of which is a rich source of salts and vitamins, both of which are most valuable from the point of view of nutrition. The pericarp also supplies roughage, which helps the action of the bowels. Rice grain being very delicate, nature has provided it with an outer covering or epicarp. This is not edible. In order to remove this inedible portion, rice has to be pounded not only removes the outer skin, but also polishes the rice by removes the outer skin of the rice grain. But machine pounding not only removing its pericarp. The explanation of the popularity helps preservation. The pericarp is very sweet and unless it is removed, rice is easily attacked by certain organisms. Polished rice and wheat without its pericarp, supply us with almost pure starch. Important constituents of the cereals are lost with the removal of the pericarp. The pericarp of rice is sold as rice polishing. This and the pericarp of wheat can be cooked and eaten by themselves. They can be also made into chapatis or cakes. It is possible that rice chapattis may be mor easily digestible than whole rice and in this form a lesser quantity may result in full satisfaction.
We are in the habit of dipping each morsel of the chapatti in vegetable or dal gravy before eating it. The result is that most people swallow their food without proper mastication. Mastication is an important step in the process of digestion, especially that of starch. Digestion of starch begins on its coming into contact with saliva in the mouth. Mastication ensures foods should be eaten in relatively dry form, which results in a greater flow of saliva and also necessitates their thorough mastication.
After the starch supplying cereals come the protein supplying pulses beans, lentils, etc. Almost everybody seems to think that pulses are an essential constitution of diet. Even meat eaters must have pulses. It is easy to understand that those who have to do hard manual work and who cannot afford to drink milk, cannot do without pulses. But I can say without any hesitation whatsoever that those who follow sedentary occupations as for instance, clerks, businessmen, lawyers, doctors, teachers and those who are not too poor to buy milk, do not requires pulses. Pulses are generally considered to be difficult to digest and are eaten in a much small quantity than cereals. Out of the varieties of pusses, peas, gram and haricot beans are considered to be the most and mung and masoor (lentils) the least difficult to digest.
Vegetable and fruit should come third on our list. One would expect them to cheap and easily available in India. But it is not so. They are generally considered to be delicates meant for the city people. In the village fresh vegetables are a rarity, and in most places fruit is also not available. This shortage of greens and fruits is a slur on the administration of India, the villagers can grow plenty of green vegetables if they wish to. The question of fruit cannot be solved so easily. The land legislation is bad from the villager’s stand point. But I Am transgressing.
Among fresh vegetables, a fair amount of leafy potatoes, sweet potatoes, suran etc. which supply starch mainly, among vegetables. They should be put down in the same category as starch supplying cereals. A fair helping of ordinary fresh vegetables is advisable. Certain varieties such as cucumber, tomatoes, mustard and cress and other tender leaves need not be cooked. They should be washed properly and them eaten raw in small quantities.
As a fruits, our daily diet should include the available fruits of the season, e.g. mangoes, jambu, guavas, grapes, papaiyas, limes sweet or sour, oranges, moosambi, etc. should all be used in their season. The best time for taking fruit is in the early morning. A breakfast of fruit and milk should give full satisfaction. Those who take an early lunch may well have a breakfast of fruit only.
Ghee And Oil
A certain amount o f fat is also necessary. This can be had in the form of ghee of oil. If ghee can be had oil becomes unnecessary. It is difficult to digest and it not so nourishing as pure ghee. An ounce and a half of ghee per head per day, should be considered ample to supply the needs of the body. Whole milk also is source o f ghee. Those who cannot afford it should take enough oil to supply the need for fat. Among oils, sweet oil, groundnut oil and coconut oil should be given preference. Oil must be fresh. If available, it is better to use hand-pressed oil. Oil and ghee sold in the bazaar are generally quite useless. It is matter of great sorrow and shame. But so long as honesty has not become an integral part of business morals, whether through legislation or through education, the individual will have to procure the pure article with patience and diligence. One should never be satisfied to take what one can get, irrespective of its quality. It is far better to do without ghee and oil altogether than to eat rancid oil and adulterated ghee. As in the case of fats, a certain amount of sugar is also necessary. Although sweet fruits supply plenty of sugar, there is no harm in taking one to one and a half ounces of sugar, brown or white, in the day. If one cannot get sweet fruits, sugar may become a necessity. But the undue prominence given to sweet things nowadays is wrong. City folk eat too much of sweet things. Milk puddings, milk sweets and sweets of other kind are consumed in large quantities. They are all unnecessary and are harmful except when taken in very small quantities. It may be said without any feat of exaggeration that to partake of sweetmeats and other delicacies, in a country where the millions do not even get an ordinary full meal, is equivalent to robbery.
What applies to sweets, applies with equal force to ghee and oil. There is no need to eat food fried in ghee or oil. To use up ghee in making puries and laddus is thoughtless extravagance. Those who are not used to such food cannot eat these things at all. For instance, Englishmen on their first coming into our country cannot eat our sweets and fried foodstuffs. Those that do eat them I have often seen fall ill. Taste is acquired, not born with us. All the delicacies of the world cannot equal the relish that hunger gives to food. A hungry man will eat a dry piece of bread with the greatest relish, whereas one who is not hungry gives to food. A hungry man will eat a dry piece of bread with the greatest relish, where one who is not hungry will refuse the best of sweetmeats.
How often and How much to Eat
Now let us consider how much should one eat. Food should be taken as a matter of duty even as a medicine to sustain the body, never for the satisfaction of the palate. Thus, pleasurable feeling comes from satisfaction of real hunger. Therefore, we can say that relish is dependent upon hunger not outside it. Because of our wrong habits and artificial way of living, very few people know what their system requires. Our parents who bring us into this world do not, as a rule, cultivate self-control. Their habits and their way of living influence the children to certain extent. The mother’s food during childhood, the mother pampers the child with all sorts of tasty foods. She gives the child a little bit out of whatever she herself may be eating and the child’s digestive system gets a wrong training from its infancy. Habits once formed are difficult to shed. They are very realization comes to man that he is his own bodyguard, and his body has been dedicated to service, he desires to learn the law of keeping his body in a fit condition and tries hard to follow them.
We have now reached a point when we can lay down the amount of various foods required by a man of sedentary habits, which most men and women who will read these pages are.

Cow's milk2 lbs.
Cereals (wheat, rice, bajra in all)6 oz.
Vegetable leafy3 oz.
Vegetable others5 oz.
Vegetables raw1 oz.
Ghee1 1/2 oz.
Butter2 oz.
White Sugar1 1/2 oz.

Fresh fruit according to one’s taste and purse. In any case it is good to take sour limes a day. The juice should be squeezed and taken with vegetables or in water, cold and hot.
All these weight are of raw stuff. I have not put down the amount of salt. It should be added afterwards according to taste.
Now, how often should one eat? Many people take two meals a day. The general rule is to take three meals: breakfast early in the morning and before going out to work, dinner at midday and supper in the evening or later. There is no necessity to have more than three meals. In the cities some people keep on nibbling from time to time to time. This habit is harmful. The digestive apparatus requires rest.

Key to Health, pp. 13-27, Edn. 1956