Non-duality. A school of philosophy associated with the Indian philosopher, Shankaracharya (788-820), which believes that there is only one Absolute Truth; all else is appearance.
Ahimsa : Nonviolence, positively the practice of love.
Ashram : Hermitage; a quiet place where people having common ideals lead a community life and follow a particular discipline. The place where Gandhi resided with his co-workers and disciples was referred to as the ashram.
Ashrama : Hindu idealism prescribes four stages or periods of good life, called ashramas: the period of study and self-discipline; of life as a householder and man of the World; of contemplation and gradual withdrawal from worldly ties; of total renunciation.
Atma : Soul, self.
Avatar : A divine incarnation.
Bania : Member of the third caste among the Hindus, whose traditional occupation is trade and commerce.
Bhagavat : A sacred book of the Hindus dealing also with the life and teachings of Lord Krishna.
Brahmacharya : Celibacy; a life of self-discipline and continence dedicated to higher pursuits.
Brahmin : Member of the first caste among the Hindus whose traditional occupation is priesthood or devotion to learning.
Chapati : Cake of unleavened bread.
Charkha : Spinning wheel.
Dharma : Religion; moral law or practice; duty.
Diwan : Chief minister of a princely State.
Himsa : Violence.
Kalma : Designates the profession of faith whereby a Muslim witnesses the unity of God.
Khaddar : Hand-spun and hand-woven doth.
Mahatma : Lit. A great soul; a title generally given to saints. In later years Gandhi was generally referred to in India as the Mahatma.
Manu : An ancient preceptor and author of the Code of Laws, named after him.
Moksha : Emancipation from earthly attachments; liberation from the cycle of births.
Muni : Seer; sage; particularly a Jain saint.
Nawab : Muslim dignitary or ruler.
Purdah : Veil worn by woman in some eastern countries.
Rishi : Sage.
Sadavrata : Giving of alms to the poor
Samskar : Indelible impression left by past action.
Satyagraha : Lit. Holding on to truth. Name given by Gandhi to the technique of non-violent resistance as practiced by him and under his guidance.
Seva Samiti : A society for voluntary social service.
Shastra : Hindu scripture.
Swadeshi : Love of one's own country or patronage of things indigenous and native.
Swaraj : Self-rule.
Upanishad : Ancient discourses on philosophy which are generally regarded as the source material of Hindu metaphysics. There are more than a hundred such Upanishads of which ten are considered as principal.
Vakil : Pleader; lawyer.
Vedas : The earliest and most sacred writings of the Hindus.